Skip to content
Christman Field Latest Observations
Select Units
Date Time
MST
Temp
°F
RH
%
DewPt
°F
Wind
mph
Dir
°
Gust
mph
Dir
°
Press
in Hg
Solar
W/m^2
Prec
in
2022-12-09 00:45 20.3 67.6 11.3 0.8 230 2.2 235 24.919 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:40 18.2 69.7 10.0 1.6 234 3.0 222 24.926 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:35 17.0 70.9 9.2 2.2 199 4.0 188 24.928 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:30 18.4 68.4 9.7 3.0 254 4.4 297 24.925 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:25 21.3 64.0 11.0 2.2 294 3.1 256 24.925 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:20 24.3 56.9 11.2 1.6 190 2.3 199 24.927 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:15 24.1 54.6 10.1 2.2 187 4.3 174 24.930 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:10 23.3 57.8 10.6 3.6 178 5.0 183 24.935 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:05 23.0 62.0 11.9 3.2 189 3.9 184 24.939 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:00 23.5 58.9 11.2 3.7 178 4.3 147 24.940 0.1 0.00
2022-12-08 23:55 23.3 60.3 11.5 4.5 147 5.8 130 24.939 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:50 24.3 56.9 11.2 2.3 137 4.0 137 24.937 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:45 24.7 55.1 10.9 2.1 160 3.0 225 24.935 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:40 23.7 57.5 10.9 2.4 231 3.7 231 24.934 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:35 23.4 60.8 11.9 3.3 174 4.6 220 24.933 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:30 24.8 55.9 11.3 4.8 226 5.9 240 24.930 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:25 23.9 60.3 12.2 4.4 240 4.9 238 24.932 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:20 23.0 58.5 10.7 5.1 232 5.5 243 24.933 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:15 22.5 61.8 11.4 4.8 246 5.6 252 24.933 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:10 21.7 62.8 11.0 3.8 272 4.3 248 24.935 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:05 23.6 55.6 10.1 3.0 234 3.5 236 24.936 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:00 21.7 61.2 10.4 2.1 192 2.5 186 24.935 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 22:55 21.3 64.1 11.0 3.6 213 4.6 224 24.933 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 22:50 22.4 62.3 11.4 4.1 229 4.9 255 24.935 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 22:45 21.5 62.8 10.8 3.4 256 4.3 190 24.936 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 22:40 21.4 63.2 10.8 4.7 195 5.3 190 24.933 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 22:35 22.9 62.0 11.8 5.6 229 6.1 260 24.932 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 22:30 22.2 59.7 10.3 2.5 253 5.9 257 24.934 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 22:25 20.0 66.7 10.8 1.0 175 2.8 282 24.935 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 22:20 21.2 63.0 10.6 3.8 284 6.3 269 24.935 0.2 0.00
Date Time
MST
Temp
°C
RH
%
DewPt
°C
Wind
m/s
Dir
°
Gust
m/s
Dir
°
Press
hPa
Solar
W/m^2
Prec
mm
2022-12-09 00:45 -6.5 67.6 -11.5 0.3 230 1.0 235 843.85 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:40 -7.6 69.7 -12.2 0.7 234 1.3 222 844.08 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:35 -8.3 70.9 -12.7 1.0 199 1.8 188 844.16 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:30 -7.5 68.4 -12.4 1.3 254 2.0 297 844.05 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:25 -6.0 64.0 -11.7 1.0 294 1.4 256 844.06 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:20 -4.3 56.9 -11.6 0.7 190 1.0 199 844.11 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:15 -4.4 54.6 -12.2 1.0 187 1.9 174 844.23 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:10 -4.8 57.8 -11.9 1.6 178 2.2 183 844.38 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:05 -5.0 62.0 -11.2 1.4 189 1.8 184 844.52 0.2 0.00
2022-12-09 00:00 -4.7 58.9 -11.6 1.6 178 1.9 147 844.58 0.1 0.00
2022-12-08 23:55 -4.9 60.3 -11.4 2.0 147 2.6 130 844.53 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:50 -4.3 56.9 -11.6 1.0 137 1.8 137 844.46 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:45 -4.0 55.1 -11.7 1.0 160 1.3 225 844.41 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:40 -4.6 57.5 -11.7 1.1 231 1.6 231 844.36 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:35 -4.8 60.8 -11.2 1.5 174 2.0 220 844.34 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:30 -4.0 55.9 -11.5 2.1 226 2.6 240 844.23 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:25 -4.5 60.3 -11.0 2.0 240 2.2 238 844.31 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:20 -5.0 58.5 -11.9 2.3 232 2.5 243 844.32 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:15 -5.3 61.8 -11.5 2.1 246 2.5 252 844.31 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:10 -5.7 62.8 -11.7 1.7 272 1.9 248 844.38 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:05 -4.6 55.6 -12.2 1.3 234 1.6 236 844.42 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 23:00 -5.7 61.2 -12.0 0.9 192 1.1 186 844.38 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 22:55 -6.0 64.1 -11.7 1.6 213 2.1 224 844.31 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 22:50 -5.4 62.3 -11.4 1.9 229 2.2 255 844.39 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 22:45 -5.8 62.8 -11.8 1.5 256 1.9 190 844.42 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 22:40 -5.9 63.2 -11.8 2.1 195 2.4 190 844.32 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 22:35 -5.1 62.0 -11.2 2.5 229 2.7 260 844.29 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 22:30 -5.5 59.7 -12.1 1.1 253 2.6 257 844.35 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 22:25 -6.6 66.7 -11.8 0.4 175 1.3 282 844.39 0.2 0.00
2022-12-08 22:20 -6.0 63.0 -11.9 1.7 284 2.8 269 844.40 0.2 0.00
CIRA

Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere

ML4DNB

Machine Learning for the VIIRS Day-Night Band


Detecting Gravity Waves


One of our goals is to develop machine learning algorithms that can identify gravity waves from the Day-Night band, e.g., from images like the one below.

Gravity waves (concentric circles) visible in Day-Night Band imagery

A key challenge for the task of detecting gravity waves is the presence of many other signals in the background of typical day-night imagery, such as city lights, ship lights, lightning, clouds, coastlines, etc.  We are currently exploring several different techniques for the automatic detection of gravity waves.

Observations and Detection of Milky Seas


VIIRS DNB observations of milky seas published in Scientific Reports:
The paper titled, “Honing in on bioluminescent milky seas from space” was published in Scientific Reports on 29 July 2021. This paper discusses VIIRS Day/Night Band observations of 12 milky sea events. Milky seas are a rare phenomenon where the surface of the ocean appears to glow at night with the water taking on a milky appearance. Recorded observations of milky seas from mariners, dating back as early as 1864, often claim this glowing, milky water stretches from horizon to horizon around the ship. Milky seas are a form of bioluminescence believed to be caused by the saprophytic relationship between a luminous bacteria and microalgae that occurs on a large scale. However, given the rare nature of these events, little in situ research has been performed. Previously, the only satellite-based observations of a milky sea event came from the Operational Linescan System (OLS) onboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Now, for the first time, researchers led by Steve Miller (CIRA) have searched exhaustively through the VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB) record, dating back to 2012, and identified 12 milky sea events. It is hoped that, moving forward, routine inspection of DNB imagery in the regions where milky seas are most common can be coordinated with research vessels to directly observe a milky sea event as it occurs, thus answering many of the remaining scientific questions surrounding this mysterious phenomenon.

One natural extension of this work is to develop machine learning algorithms that detect this phenomenon automatically, and alert researchers.  A first step though is to identify enough imagery with this phenomenon that makes training of machine learning techniques feasible.

Full reference:

Miller, S.D., Haddock, S.H.D., Straka, W.C., Seaman, C.J., Combs, C.L., Wang, M., Shi, W. and Nam, S.-H. Honing in on bioluminescent milky seas from space. Sci Rep 11, 15443 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94823-z

Interested readers are encouraged to check out the supplemental materials provided at the bottom of the above article (below the references) for a list of mariner reports of milky sea sightings and the full list of DNB-detected milky sea events – so far.

 

Comparison between Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) imagery for a bioluminescent milky sea south of Java.  The glowing ocean surface, seen only on moonless nights and whose area exceeds the size of Iceland (> 100,000 square km) persisted offshore of Java for several weeks, drifting slowly westward between two ocean eddies.  The new DNB capability affords the first practical detection of milky seas via high-quality, calibrated low-light imagery–paving the way for future research expeditions.

 

Publications


  • Miller, S. D., W. C. Straka III, J. Yue, S. M. Smith, M. J. Alexander, L. Hoffmann, M. Setvák, and P. T. Partain, 2015: Upper atmospheric gravity wave details revealed in night glow satellite imagery. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 112(49), 6728-6735, doi:10.1073/pnas.1508084112. LINK

  • Miller, S. D., W. C. Straka III, J. Yue, C. J. Seaman, S. Xu, C. D. Elvidge, L. Hoffman, and S. I. Azeem, 2018: The Dark Side of Hurricane Matthew—Unique Perspectives from the Day/Night Band. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 99(12), 2561-2574, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0097.1  LINK

Primary contact


Steve Miller (CIRA director, Professor – Atmospheric Science)