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Carbon Team

About the Carbon Team

Carbon Group Working Areas:

  • Satellite-based greenhouse gas observations (primarily carbon dioxide and methane)
  • Carbon flux inverse modeling
  • Biospheric/land surface modeling of carbon, water and energy exchange
  • Atmospheric transport of trace gases

Key Science Goals:

  • A better understanding of the present state of the earth’s carbon cycle, and the contribution of the biosphere to carbon cycling at urban to regional to global scales.
  • Observing, understanding, and attributing changes to the earth’s carbon cycle in the era of climate change
  • Feasibility of monitoring anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases from satellites



Nicole Jacobs, C.W. O’Dell, T.E. Taylor, et. al., The importance of digital elevation model accuracy in XCO2 retrievals: improving the OCO-2 ACOS v11 product, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 2023.

Gregory McGarragh, C.W. O’Dell, et. al., The GeoCarb greenhouse gas retrieval algorithm: Simulations and sensitivity to sources of uncertainty, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 2023.

Michael Bertolacci, Andrew Zammit-Mangion, Andrew Schuh, …, Inferring changes to the global carbon cycle with WOMBAT v2.0, a hierarchical flux-inversion framework, submitted to Annals of Applied Statistics, 2023,

Published 2023

Schuh, A. E., Jacobson, A. R., Uncertainty in parameterized convection remains a key obstacle for estimating surface fluxes of carbon dioxide, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23 (11), 2023,

Byrne, B., Baker, D. F., Basu, S., …, O’Dell, C. W., et al., National CO2 budgets (2015–2020) inferred from atmospheric CO2 observations in support of the Global Stocktake, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2023,

T.E. Taylor, C.W. O’Dell, et. al., Evaluating the consistency between OCO-2 and OCO-3 XCO2 estimates derived from the NASA ACOS version 10 retrieval algorithm, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 2023,

Bell, E., O’Dell, C. W., Taylor, T. E., Merrelli, A., Nelson, R. R., Kiel, M., Eldering, A., Rosenberg, R., and Fisher, B., Exploring bias in the OCO-3 snapshot area mapping mode via geometry, surface, and aerosol effects, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 109–133, 2023,

Published 2022

Yu Yan Cui, …, David Baker,…,Andrew Schuh, et al., Evaluating global atmospheric inversions of terrestrial net ecosystem exchange CO2 over North America on seasonal and sub-continental scales, Geophysical Res. Letters, 49, 2022,

Yilong Wang, …, David F. Baker, Andrew E. Schuh, et al., Constraining China’s land carbon sink from emerging satellite CO2 observations: progress and challenges, Global Change Biology, 2022,

T.E. Taylor, C.W. O’Dell, et. al., An 11-year record of XCO2 estimates derived from GOSAT measurements using the NASA ACOS version 9 retrieval algorithm. Earth System Science Data, 14 (1), 325-360, 2022,

Peiro, H., Crowell, S., Schuh, A., Baker, D. F., O’Dell, C., et al: Four years of global carbon cycle observed from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) version 9 and in situ data and comparison to OCO-2 version 7, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1097–1130, 2022,

Schuh, A.E., et al. On the role of atmospheric model transport uncertainty in estimating the Chinese land carbon sink. Nature, 603, E13–E14, 2022,

Zhang, L., Davis, K. J., Schuh, A. E., et al. Multi-season evaluation of CO2 weather in OCO-2 MIP models. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 127, 2022,

Published 2021

Davis, K.J., … D.F. Baker, I.T. Baker, …, C.W. O’Dell, A.E. Schuh, et al., The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) America Mission., Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 2021,

Schuh, A.E. et al., Far-field biogenic and anthropogenic emissions as a dominant source of variability in local urban carbon budgets: A global high-resolution model study with implications for satellite remote sensing, Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 262,2021,

Massie, S. T., …, Christopher O’Dell,…, David Baker, Analysis of 3D cloud effects in OCO-2 XCO2 retrievals, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 14, 1475-1499, 2021.

Somkuti, P., O’Dell, C. W., …, McGarragh, G. R., et al., Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence from the Geostationary Carbon Cycle Observatory (GeoCarb): An extensive simulation study. Remote Sensing of Environment, 2021,

B. J. Gaudet, …, A. Schuh, et al, Regional-scale, sector-specific evaluation of global CO2 inversion models using aircraft data from the ACT-America project, JGR-Atmospheres, 2020,

Published 2020

Somkuti, P., Bösch, H., Feng, L., Palmer, P. I., Parker, R. J., and Quaife, T. A new space-borne perspective of crop productivity variations over the US Corn Belt. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 281:107826, 2020.

Somkuti, P., Bösch, H., and Parker, R. J. The significance of fast radiative transfer for hyperspectral SWIR XCO2 retrievals. Atmosphere, 11(11):1219, 2020.

T.E. Taylor, et. al., OCO-3 early mission operations and initial (vEarly) XCO2 and SIF retrievals, Remote Sensing of Environment, 251, 2020.

Sha Feng, …, Andrew E. Schuh, Ian Baker, Seasonal Characteristics of Model Uncertainties From Biogenic Fluxes, Transport, and Large‐Scale Boundary Inflow in Atmospheric CO2 Simulations Over North America, JGR-Atmospheres, 2020,

Published 2019

Baker, I.T., A.S. Denning, D.A. Dazlich, A.B. Harper, M.D. Branson, D.A. Randall, M.C. Phillips, K.D. Haynes, S.M. Gallup (2019). Surface-Atmosphere Coupling Scale, the Fate of Water, and Ecophysiological Function in a Brazilian Forest. textitJ. Adv. Mod. Earth Sy., 11(8), 2523-2546, doi:10.1029/2019MS001650.

Haynes, K., Baker, I. T., Denning, S., St ̈ockli, R., Schaefer, K., Lokupitiya, E. Y., Haynes, J. M. (2019). Representing grasslands using dynamic prognostic phenology based on biological growth stages: 1. Implementation in the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB4). J. Adv. Mod. Earth Sy., 11. 2018MS001540

Haynes, K. D., Baker, I. T., Denning, A. S., Wolf, S., Wohlfahrt, G., Kiely, G., et al. (2019). Representing grasslands using dynamic prognostic phenology based on biological growth stages: 2. Carbon cycling. , J. Adv. Mod. Earth Sy., 11. https://

Andrew Schuh,…, David Baker, et al., Quantifying the Impact of Atmospheric Transport Uncertainty on CO2 Surface Flux Estimates, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2019,

Sean Crowell, David Baker, Andrew Schuh,…,Christopher O’Dell, et al., The 2015–2016 Carbon Cycle As Seen from OCO-2 and the Global In Situ Network, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2019,

Annmarie Eldering, Thomas E. Taylor, Christopher W. O’Dell and R. Pavlick, The OCO-3 mission: measurement objectives and expected performance based on 1 year of simulated data, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 12 (4), 2341-2370, 2019,

M. Kiel, C.W. O’Dell, et. al., How bias correction goes wrong: measurement of XCO2 affected by erroneous surface pressure estimates, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 12, 2241-2259, 2019,

Published 2018

C.W. O’Dell, et. al., Improved retrievals of carbon dioxide from Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 with the version 8 ACOS algorithm, Atmospheric Measurements Techniques, 11, 6539-6576, 2018,

Published 2017

Baker, I.T., P.J. Sellers, A.S. Denning, I. Medina, P. Kraus, K.D. Haynes, 2017: Closing the scale gap between land surface parameterizations and GCMs with a new scheme, SiB3-Bins. J. Adv. Mod. Earth Sy., 9, doi:10.1002/ 2016MS000764.

Published 2016


Published 2015


Published 2014


Published 2013

Andrew Schuh, et al, Evaluating atmospheric CO2 inversions at multiple scales over a highly inventoried agricultural landscape, Global Change Biology, 19: 1424–1439, 2013,

Baker, I.T., H.R. da Rocha, N. Restrepo-Coupe, R. St ̈ockli, L.S. Borma, O.M. Cabral, A.O. Manzi, A.D. Nobre, S.C. Wofsy, S.R. Saleska, M.L. Goulden, S.D. Miller, F.L. Cardoso, A.S. Denning, 2013: Surface ecophysiological behavior across vegetation and moisture gradients in Amazonia. Agric. For. Meteor., 182-183, 177-188, doi:

Berry, J.A., A. Wolf, J.E. Campbell, I. Baker, N. Blake, D.Blake, A.S. Denning, S.R. Kawa, S.A. Montzka, U. Seibt, K. Stimler, D. Yakir, Z. Zhu, 2013: A coupled model of the global cycles of carbonyl sulfide and CO2: A possible new window on the carbon cycle. J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/jgrg.20068.(I add this one because it is the seminal OCS modeling paper and gets cited all the time)

Published 2012

D. O’Brien, I. Polonsky, C.W. O’Dell, A. Kuze, N. Kikuchi, and V. Natraj, 2011: Testing the polarization model for TANSO-FTS on GOSAT against clear-sky observations of sun-glint over the ocean. In prep, to be submitted to IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

D. Hammerling, A. Michalak, C.W. O’Dell, and S.R. Kawa, 2012: Global CO2 distributions over land from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L08804, doi:10.1029/2012GL051203.

C. Frankenberg, C.W. O’Dell, L. Guanter, and J. McDuffie, 2012: Remote sensing of near-infrared chlorophyll fluorescence from space in scattering atmospheres: implications for its retrieval and interferences with atmospheric CO2 retrievals. Atmos Meas. Tech., 5, 2081-2094.

C. Frankenberg, O. Hasekamp, C.W. O’Dell, S. Sanghavi, A. Butz, and J. Worden, 2012:Aerosol information content analysis of multi-angle high spectral resolution measurements and its benefit for high accuracy greenhouse gas retrievals. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1809-1821.

S. Oshchepkov, A. Bril, T. Yokota, I. Morino, Y. Yoshida, T. Matsunaga, D. Belikov, D. Wunch, P. O. Wennberg, G. Toon, C. W. O’Dell, A. Butz, S. Guerlet, A. Cogan, H. Boesch, N. Eguchi, D. Griffith, R. Macatangay, J. Notholt, N. Deutscher, R. Sussmann, M. Rettinger, V. Sherlock, J. Robinson, E. Kyrö, P. Heikkinen, D. G. Feist, T. Nagahama, N. Kadygrov, S. Maksyutov, O. Uchino, H. Watanabe, 2012: Effects of atmospheric light scattering in validation of spectroscopic space-based observations of carbon dioxide by ground-based FTS measurements, Part 1. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D12, doi:10.1029/2012JD017505.

D. Crisp, B. M. Fisher, C.W. O’Dell, C. Frankenberg, R. Basilio, H. Bösch, L. R. Brown, R. Castano, B. Connor, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, D. Griffith, M. Gunson, A. Kuze, L. Mandrake, J. McDuffie, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, V. Natraj, J. Notholt, D. O’Brien, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, J. Robinson, R. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, M. Smyth, H. Suto, T. Taylor, P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and Y. L. Yung, 2012: The ACOS XCO2 retrieval algorithm, Part 2: Global XCO2 data characterization. Atmos Meas. Tech., 5, 687-707.

T.E. Taylor, C.W. O’Dell, D.M. O’Brien, N. Kikuchi, T. Yakota, T. Y. Nakajima, H. Ishida, D. Crisp, and T. Nakajima, Comparison of cloud screening methods applied to GOSAT near-infrared spectra, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, 50 (1), 2012. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2011.2160270.

Published 2011

C.W. O’Dell, B. Connor, H. Bösch, D. O’Brien, C. Frankenberg, R. Castano, M. Christi, D. Crisp, A. Eldering, B. Fisher, M. Gunson, J. McDuffie, C. E. Miller, V. Natraj, F. Oyafuso, I. Polonsky, M. Smyth, T. Taylor, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, and D. Wunch, 2011: The ACOS CO2 retrieval algorithm, Part 1: Description and validation against synthetic observations. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 4, 6097-6158.

D. Wunch, P. O. Wennberg, G. C. Toon, B. J. Connor, B. Fisher, G. B. Osterman, C. Frankenberg, L. Mandrake, C.W. O’Dell, P. Ahonen, S. C. Biraud, R. Castano, N. Cressie, D. Crisp, N. M. Deutscher, A. Eldering, M. L. Fisher, D. W. T. Griffith, M. Gunson, P. Heikkinen, G. Keppel-Aleks, E. Kyrö, R. Lindenmaier, R. Macatangay, J. Mendonca, J. Messerschmidt, C. E. Miller, I. Morino, J. Notholt, F. A. Oyafuso, M. Rettinger, J. Robinson, C. M. Roehl, R. J. Salawitch, V. Sherlock, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, T. Tanaka, D. R. Thompson, O. Uchino, T. Warneke, and S. C. Wofsy, 2011: A method for evaluating bias in global measurements of CO2 total columns from space. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 11, 20899-20946.

C.W. O’Dell, J.O. Day, H. Pollock, C. Bruegge, D.M. O’Brien, R. Castano, I. Tkatcheva, C.E. Miller, and D. Crisp, Preflight radiometric calibration of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 49 (6), 2438-2447, 2011. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2010.2090887.

J.O. Day, C.W. O’Dell, H. Pollock, C. Bruegge, D. Rider, D. Crisp, and C.E. Miller, Preflight spectral calibration of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 49 (7), 2793-2801, 2011. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2011.2107745 .

Published 2010

Andrew E. Schuh,…Ian Baker, et al., A regional high-resolution carbon flux inversion of North America for 2004, Biogeosciences, 7, 1625-1644, 2010,

Kuze, A., D.M. O’Brien, T.E. Taylor, J.O. Day, C.W. O’Dell, F. Kataoka, M. Yoshida, Y. Mitomi, C. Bruegge, H. Pollock, R. Basilio, M. Helmlinger, T. Matsunaga, S. Kawakami, K. Shiomi, T. Urabe and H. Suto, Vicarious calibration of the GOSAT sensors using the Railroad Valley Desert Playa, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 49 (5), 1781-1975, 2010. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2010.2089527 .

C.W. O’Dell, Acceleration of multiple-scattering, hyperspectral radiative transfer calculations via low-streams interpolation. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D10206, 2010.

Published 2009

Andrew E. Schuh,…Ian Baker, et al., Seeing the forest through the trees: Recovering large-scale carbon flux biases in the midst of small-scale variability, Journal of Geophysical Research, 2009,

J. Vidot, J., R. Bennartz, C.W. O’Dell, R. Preusker, R. Lindstrot, and A.K. Heidinger, CO2 retrieval over clouds from the OCO mission: Model simulations and error analysis, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 26 (6), 1090-1104, 2009.

Published 2008


Published 2007


Published 2006

A.K. Heidinger, C.W. O’Dell, T. Greenwald, & R. Bennartz, 2006: The Successive Order of Interaction Radiative Transfer Model, Part I: Model Development. J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 45 (10), pp. 1388-1402.

C.W. O’Dell, A.K. Heidinger, T. Greenwald, & R. Bennartz, 2006: The Successive Order of Interaction Radiative Transfer Model, Part II: Model Performance and Applications. J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 45 (10), pp. 1403-1413.


Active Projects

Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 and 3 :: algorithm development and data analysis (with NASA JPL)

GeoCarb :: continuing development/calibration of the instrument towards re-funding & space-flight (with Lockheed-Martin and LumenUs)

MethaneSat :: developing operational CO2 retrievals (with Environmental Defense Fund and Harvard Univ.)

Evaluating carbon dynamics across regions and scales (NASA, NOAA, NSF)

Using a Novel Multiscale Modeling Framework to Characterize Brazil’s Carbon Cycle (NASA Carbon Monitoring System)

Designing optimized space-based GHG observing systems (with NASA Goddard)

Utilization of solar induced fluorescence (SIF) towards characterizing dryland agriculture (NASA and USDA)

Past Projects

ACT-America field campaign (with NASA and Penn State)

  • Climate and Weather Processes
  • Satellite Algorithm Development, Training and Education
  • Modeling Systems Research
  • Data Assimilation