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Bill Line
Federal Employee

Bill Line

NOAA Physical Scientist

About Me:

Bill Line earned a B.S. (2011) and an M.S. (2013) in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences from the University of Wisconsin – Madison. In 2013, he began working at the University of Oklahoma and the Storm Prediction Center in Norman, OK, as a Satellite Liaison. He then transitioned to the National Weather Service in Pueblo, CO, as a forecaster in 2016. In 2019, Bill joined the Regional and Mesoscale Meteorology (RAMM) Branch of NOAA/NESDIS/STAR as a Research Meteorologist and has been the STAR Imagery Science Team Lead since 2022.

Bill’s expertise and interests lie in developing innovative techniques and sharing best practices for the application and validation of geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite imagery. Among his research and technical developments are techniques for detecting sea spray, blowing dust, and blowing snow, as well as the development of a climatology of blowing dust, all leveraging NOAA satellite imagery. He has also developed numerous technical updates and satellite procedures for the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) that have been implemented in NWS operations. Recently, Bill led validation activities resulting in the successful checkout of NOAA-21 VIIRS Imagery, a NOAA Key Performance Parameter. This achievement contributed to his team receiving the “2023 Robert H Goddard Science” award. 

Bill’s contributions extend to knowledge sharing through numerous presentations at scientific meetings and publications in scientific journals, technical reports, and blog posts. In 2024, he was honored with the NOAA David Johnson Award, acknowledging his leadership in developing, demonstrating, and training forecasters in new products employing GOES-R and JPSS satellite imagery.

 

Refereed Publications

  • Seaman, C.J., W.E. Line, R. Ziel, J.L. Jenkins, C. Dierking and G. Hanson, 2023: Multispectral Satellite Imagery Products for Fire Weather Applications. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-22-0107.1. 
  • Rogers, M.A., S.D. Miller, C.J. Seaman, J. Torres, D. Hillger, E. Szoke, and W.E. Line, 2023: VIIRS after 10 Years—A Perspective on Benefits to Forecasters and End-Users. Remote Sensing, 15(4), p.976, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15040976.
  • Hillger, D., W. E. Line, C. J. Seaman, S. D. Miller, S. Finley, T. J. Kopp, 2022: Ten Years of VIIRS EDR Imagery Validation and User Interactions. Remote Sens., 14(17), 4167. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14174167
  • Miller S. D., Y.-J. Noh, L. D. Grasso, C. J. Seaman, A. Ignatov, A. K. Heidinger, S.H. Nam, W.  E. Line, and B. Petrenko, 2022: A Physical Basis for the Overstatement of Low Clouds at Night by Conventional Satellite Infrared-Based Imaging Radiometer Bi-Spectral Techniques.  Earth and Space Science. 9 (2), e2021EA002137,  https://doi.org/10.1029/2021EA002137 
  • Line, W. E., L. Grasso, D. Hillger, C. Dierking, A. Jacobs, and S. Shea, 2022: Using NOAA Satellite Imagery to Detect and Track Hazardous Sea Spray in the High Latitudes. Wea. Forecasting, 37, 351-369,  https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-21-0137.1.
  • Grasso, L. D., D. E. Bikos, J. F. Dostalek, T.-C. Wu, K. A. Hilburn, E. J. Szoke, J. R. Torres, J. W. Zeitler, W. E. Line, and A. E. Cohen, 2020: Application of the GOES-16 Advanced Baseline Imager: Morphology of a preconvective environment on 17 April 2019. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 15, 1-24, https://ejssm.org/ojs/index.php/ejssm/article/view/177/124.
  • Gallo, B. T., and Coauthors, 2017: Breaking new ground in severe weather prediction: The 2015 NOAA/Hazardous Weather Testbed Spring Forecasting Experiment. Wea. Forecasting, 32, 1541–1568, https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-16-0178.1.
  • Gravelle, C. M., J. R. Mecikalski, W. E. Line, K. M. Bedka, R. A. Petersen, J.M. Sieglaff, G. T. Stano, and S. J. Goodman, 2016: Demonstration of a GOES-R satellite convective toolkit to “bridge the gap” between severe weather watches and warnings: An example from the 20 May 2013 Moore, Oklahoma, tornado outbreak. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97, 69–84, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00054.1.
  • Lindley, T. T., A. R. Anderson, V. N. Mahale, T. S. Curl, W. E. Line, S. S. Lindstrom, and A. S. Bachmeier, 2016: Wildfire detection notifications for impact-based decision support services in Oklahoma using geostationary super rapid scan satellite imagery. J. Operational Meteor., 4 (14), 182−191, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15191/nwajom.2016.0414.
  • Line, W. E., T. J. Schmit, D. T. Lindsey, and S. J. Goodman, 2016: Use of Geostationary Super Rapid Scan Satellite Imagery by the Storm Prediction Center. Wea. Forecasting31, 483–494. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-15-0135.1.

 

Nonrefereed/Informal Publications, Presentations, and Posters

  • Line, W.E., 2023: Satellite-Based Blowing Dust Detection Products and Climatology for Operational Weather Forecasters. DANA Dust Seminar Series, 3 November 2023, remote presentation.
  • Line, W.E., 2023: A Satellite-Derived Blowing Dust Climatology over the Southwest United States. 2023 NWA Annual Meeting, 11 September 2023, Kansas City, MO.
  • Line, W.E., 2023: Applications of Satellite Imagery during Wildfire Events. Satellite Book Club Seminar Series, 7 Sep 2023, remote presentation.
  • Line, W.E., 2023: Validated Maturity Science Review for NOAA-21 VIIRS Imagery. NOAA-21 Maturity Review, 3 August 2023, remote presentation.
  • Line, W.E., 2023: Operational Applications of Satellite Data. CSU ATS 737 Guest Lecture, 17 Apr 2023, Fort Collins, CO.
  • Line, W.E., 2023: GOES-18 Barcode Artifact. Satellite Book Club Seminar Series, 06 April 2023, remote presentation.
  • Line, W.E., 2023: Provisional Maturity Science Review for NOAA-21 VIIRS Imagery. NOAA-21 Maturity Review, 30 March 2023, remote presentation.
  • Line, W.E., 2023: Beta Maturity Science Review for NOAA-21 VIIRS Imagery. NOAA-21 Maturity Review, 23 February 2023, remote presentation.
  • Line, W.E., 2023: Applications of NOAA Satellite Imagery at High Latitudes. Alaska Region Science Sharing Webinar, 25 January 2023, remote presentation.
  • Line, W.E., 2023: Very High Temporal Resolution Imagery Captured During the GOES-18 ABI Checkout. 2023 AMS Annual Meeting, 12 January 2023, Denver, CO.
  • Line, W.E., 2023: Operational Applications of VIIRS Imagery. 2023 AMS Annual Meeting, 11 January 2023, Denver, CO.
  • Line, W.E., 2022: NOAA Satellite Applications During the Winter at High Latitudes. Alaska Region Science Sharing Webinar, 7 Dec 2022, remote presentation.
  • Line, W.E., 2022: Applications of Satellite Imagery During Winter Weather Scenarios. Satellite Book Club Seminar Series, 10 Nov 2022, remote presentation.
  • Line, W. E., 2022: RGB Perspective from a Forecaster-Turned-Researcher. 2022 International RGB Developers and Users Workshop, 18-20 October, Fort Collins, CO.
  • Line, W., 2022: Creating a Blowing Dust Climatology from NOAA Satellite Imagery. 2022 Collective Madison Meeting, 8 August 2022, Poster.
  • Line, W.E., 2022: Leveraging Satellite Imagery and Products on Severe Thunderstorm Days. AMS Short Course, 23 June 2022, remote presentation.
  • Line, W.E., 2022: Using NOAA Satellite Data to Detect and Track Blowing Dust. Satellite Book Club Seminar Series, 21 April 2022, remote presentation.
  • Line, W.E., 2022: Augmenting Multispectral Satellite Imagery with Derived Product Readouts. Satellite Book Club Seminar Series, 10 February 2022, remote presentation.
  • Line, W.E., 2022: VIIRS EDR Imagery Changes and Improvements. 2022 AMS Annual Meeting, 26 January 2022, remote presentation.
  • Line, W.E., 2022: Using Advanced NOAA Satellite Imagery to Detect Blowing Dust. 2022 AMS Annual Meeting, 24 January 2022, remote presentation.
  • Line, W. E., 2021: Satellite Imagery Applications During Burn Scar Flash Flood Events. NOAA TOWR-S Satellite Book Club Seminar Series, 16 Sep 2021, remote presentation.
  • Dills, P., W. E. Line, 2021: Satellite RGB Composite Imagery & Applications – COMET Lesson. NOAA TOWR-S Satellite Book Club Seminar Series, 02 Sep 2021, remote presentation.
  • Line, W. E., 2021:  Using multispectral imagery products to anticipate, detect, and track severe thunderstorms. 2021 AMS Short Course – GOES-R/JPSS Hands-On Training, 18 Mar 2021, presented remotely.
  • Hillger, D. W., B. Line, D. Molenar, T. Kopp, D. Compton, W. Chen, S. Finley, C. Seaman, S. D. Miller, and S. Venter, 2021:  16 M-Band VIIRS EDR Imagery for JPSS-2. 17th Annual Symposium on Operational Environmental Satellite Systems, Oceanography, and Climatology, 14 Jan 2021, presented remotely.
  • Line, W. E., L. Grasso, 2021:  Using GOES-R and JPSS Satellite Data to Detect and Track Hazardous Sea Spray in the High Latitudes. 24th Conference on Satellite Meteorology, Oceanography, and Climatology, 11 Jan 2021, presented remotely.
  • Line, W. E., L. Grasso, 2020:  Using GOES-R and JPSS Satellite Data to Detect and Track Hazardous Sea Spray in the High Latitudes. 2020 NWA Annual Meeting, 15 Sep 2020, presented remotely.
  • Line, W. E., 2020: GOES-R Derived Motion Winds. NOAA TOWR-S Satellite Book Club Seminar Series, 30 July 2020, remote presentation.
  • Line, W. E., 2019: Modifying RGB Imagery on the Fly in AWIPS. FDTD GOES Applications Webinar, 24 September 2019, remote presentation.
  • Alsheimer, F., S.W. Bieda III, D.A. Barber, B. C. Carcione, B. C. Motta, W. Line, B. Ward, 2019: The Satellite Training and Operations Resource (STOR) Site: An Effort to Provide Continuing Satellite Education to National Weather Service Forecasters. 2019 Joint Satellite Conference, 28 September – 04 October 2019, Boston, MA.
  • Line, W. E., 2019: Operational Use of GOES-R ABI and GLM Data during Short-Fused Forecast and Warning Situations. 2019 Joint Satellite Conference, 28 September – 04 October, Boston, MA.
  • Line, W. E., 2019:  Heavy Precipitation and Flash Flooding in Mountainous Terrain. 2019 Satellite Applications Workshop, 30 July, Kansas City, MO.
  • Line, W. E., 2019: Wildfire Hot Spot Notification Service at NWS Pueblo. 2019 Southern Colorado IWT, 2 May, Pueblo, CO.
  • Line, W. E., 2019: GOES-16 Updates and GLM Use in Operations. NWS Pueblo Spring 2019 Workshop, 16 April, Pueblo, CO.
  • Line, W. E., 2019: Wildfire Hot Spot Notification Service at NWS Pueblo. 2019 El Paso County Wildfire Tabletop Exercise, 4 April, Colorado Springs, CO.
  • Line, W. E., 2018: Wildfire Detection and Notification at NWS Pueblo Using GOES-R Satellites. Denver/Boulder AMS Seminar, 15 November, Boulder, CO.
  • Line, W. E., 2018: Using GOES-16 Imagery and Derived Products in NWS Operations to Assess the Pre-Convective Environment. 43rd NWA Annual Meeting, 26-30 August, St. Louis, MO.
  • Line, W. E., 2018: Satellite Training Activities. NWS Director (Louis Uccellini) Visit to NWS Pueblo, 6 August, Pueblo, CO.
  • Line, W. E., 2018: Satellite Liaisons: Perspective from a Former Satellite Liaison. Remote Presentation for STAR/NWS Satellite Operations Seminar, 21 June, College Park, MD.
  • Line, W. E., 2018: GOES-16 Updates and Use During the Convective Season. NWS Pueblo Spring 2018 Workshop, 12 April, Pueblo, CO.
  • Line, W. E., 2018: GOES-16 Updates and Use During the Convective Season. NWS Boulder Spring 2018 Workshop, 6 April and 13 April, Boulder, CO.
  • Line, W. E., 2018: Spring 2018 Fire Weather Update. Southern Colorado “Before the Fire” Workshop, 22 March, Pueblo, CO.
  • Demuth, J. L., D. Nietfeld, C. M. Gravelle, W. E. Line, S. D. Miller, A. B. Schumacher, G. T. Stano, 2018: Development and Communication of Next-Generation Satellite Information for Forecasting Extreme Weather. Panel Discussion Presented at the AMS 14th Annual Symposium on New Generation Operational Environmental Satellite Systems, 7-11 January, Austin, TX.
  • Line, W. E., 2018: Operational Use of GOES-16 at NWS Pueblo. AMS 14th Annual Symposium on New Generation Operational Environmental Satellite Systems, 7-11 January, Austin, TX.
  • Meyer, T. C., K. Berry, M. A. Bowlan, K. M. Calhoun, J. Correia Jr., G. S. Garfield, A. Gerard, T. Hansen, C. Karstens, K. Klockow, D. LaDue, J. G. LaDue, W. Line, C. Ling, D. M. Kingfield, K. L. Manross, H. Obermeier, L. Rothfusz, and G. J. Stumpf, 2018: An Overview of the 2017 Experimental Warning Program at the Hazardous Weather Testbed. AMS Eighth Conference on Transition of Research to Operations, 7-11 January, Austin, TX.
  • Calhoun, K., W. Line, T. Meyer, D. Kingfield, 2017: Satellite Proving Ground Activities in the HWT. 42nd NWA Annual Meeting, 16-21 September, Garden Grove, CA.
  • Line, W. E., 2017: Operational Use of GOES-16 Data at NWS Pueblo, CO. 42nd NWA Annual Meeting, 16-21 September, Garden Grove, CA.
  • Line, W. E., 2017: GOES-R. Remote Presentation for 2017 National Association of Black Journalists Conference, 11 August, New Orleans, LA.
  • Line, W. E., 2017: Incorporating GOES-16 Data into Convective Warning Operations on the High Plains. 2017 High Plains Conference, 9 August, Dodge City, KS.
  • Line, W. E., 2017: GOES-R.  NWS Pueblo Spring 2017 Workshop, 13 April, Pueblo, CO.
  • Line, W. E., 2017: GOES-R: What can you expect? 2017 Hurricane Center Live Conference, 5-9 April, South Padre Island, TX.
  • Line, W. E., 2017: GOES-R: What can you expect? 2017 StormCenter Live Conference, 10-11 March, San Antonio, TX.
  • Goodman, S. J., T. J. Schmit, D. T. Lindsey, M. J. Pavolonis, and W. Line, 2017: NOAA New Generation Satellite Capabilities for Improved Severe Storm Forecasts and Warnings. AMS Special Symposium on Severe Local Storms: Observation needs to advance research, prediction and communication, 22-26 January, Seattle, WA.
  • Meyer, T. C., K. M. Calhoun, G. S. Garfield, A. Gerard, J. J. Gourley, C. Karstens, D. M. Kingfield, D. LaDue, W. Line, C. Ling, S. M. Martinaitis, L. Rothfusz, T. M. Smith, and G. J. Stumpf, 2017: The Experimental Warning Program at the Hazardous Weather Testbed. AMS Seventh Conference on Transition of Research to Operations, 22-26 January, Seattle, WA.
  • Zavodsky, B. T., N. Smith, J. F. Dostalek, E. Stevens, K. Nelson, E. Weisz, E. Berndt, W. Line, C. D. Barnet, A. Gambacorta, T. Reale, and D. Hoese, 2017: A Gridded CrIS/ATMS Visualization for Operational Forecasting. AMS 28th Conference on Weather Analysis and Forecasting / 24th Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction, 22-26 January, Seattle, WA.
  • Line, W. E., 2016: GOES-R: What can you expect? 2016 Great Plains / Rocky Mountain American Association of Geographers Conference, 22 October, Colorado Springs, CO.
  • Line, W. E., 2016: GOES-R. NWS/OUN Brownbag, 30 August, Norman, OK.
  • Line, W. E., 2016: Overview of GOES-R Series. 2016 NWS SOO Development Course, 23 August 2016, Norman, OK.
  • Line, W. E., 2016: Results from GOES-R and JPSS Proving Ground Demonstrations at the HWT 2016 Spring Experiment. AMS Joint 21st Satellite Meteorology, Oceanography, and Climatology Conference, 15-18 August, Madison, WI.
  • Line, W. E., 2016: NUCAPS Evaluation at the HWT 2016 Spring Experiment. Remote Presentation for 3rd NOAA/STAR JPSS Annual Science Team Meeting, 8-12 August, College Park, MD.
  • Line, W. E., 2016: GOES-R: What It Means for You. 2016 WSB Weather Seminar, 15 May, Atlanta, GA.
  • Line, W. E., 2016: Satellite Training at the Hazardous Weather Testbed. 3rd NOAA Satellite Proving Ground/User Readiness Meeting, 9-13 May, Norman, OK.
  • Line, W. E., 2016: HWT 2016 Spring Experiment Overview. 3rd NOAA Satellite Proving Ground/User Readiness Meeting, 9-13 May, Norman, OK.
  • Line, W. E., 2016: Preparing for GOES-R, the Next Generation of Geostationary Weather Satellites. 27th Annual Steamboat Weather Summit, 17-22 January, Steamboat Springs, CO.
  • Barnet, C. D., A. Gambacorta, B. Sjoberg, W. Line, and D. M. Goldberg, 2016: The Use of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles for Weather Applications: Recent Activities in the NOAA/JPSS Proving Ground. AMS 12th Annual Symposium on New Generation Operational Environmental Satellite Systems, 10-14 January, New Orleans, LA.
  • Kuhlman, K. M., G. S. Garfield, D. M. Kingfield, C. D. Karstens, D. LaDue, W. Line, T. C. Meyer, T. M. Smith, and G. J. Stumpf, 2016: The Experimental Warning Program at the NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed. AMS Sixth Conference on Transition of Research to Operations, 10-14 January, New Orleans, LA.
  • Line, W. E., 2016: Results from GOES-R and JPSS Proving Ground Demonstrations at the HWT 2015 Spring Experiment. AMS 12th Annual Symposium on New Generation Operational Environmental Satellite Systems, 10-14 January, New Orleans, LA.
  • Line, W. E., 2015: Results from GOES-R Proving Ground Demonstrations at the 2015 HWT Spring Experiment. 40th NWA Annual Meeting, 17-22 October, Oklahoma City, OK.
  • Line, W. E., 2015: On the Use of 1-Minute Satellite Imagery in the Storm Prediction Center. 40th NWA Annual Meeting, 17-22 October, Oklahoma City, OK.
  • Line, W. E., 2015: GOES-R Overview. Society of Environmental Journalists Visit to the National Weather Center, 8 October 2016, Norman, OK.
  • Line, W. E., 2015: NUCAPS demonstration at the HWT 2015 Spring Experiment. Remote Presentation for 2nd NOAA/STAR JPSS Annual Science Team Meeting, 24-28 August, College Park, MD.
  • Line, W. E., 2015: Current State of 1-minute Imagery User Readiness. 2nd NOAA Satellite Proving Ground/User Readiness Meeting, 15-19 June, Kansas City, MO.
  • Line, W. E., 2015: On the Use of 1-Minute Satellite Imagery in the Storm Prediction Center. 2015 NOAA Satellite Conference, 27 April – 1 May, Greenbelt, MD.
  • Line, W. E., 2015: Results from GOES-R Proving Ground Demonstrations at the 2014 HWT Spring Experiment. Presented Remotely for 6th NOAA Testbeds & Proving Grounds Workshop, 14-16 April, Boulder CO.
  • Line, W. E., 2015: Results from GOES-R Proving Ground Activities within the Storm Prediction Center. AMS 11th Annual Symposium on New Generation Operational Environmental Satellite Systems, 4-8 January, Phoenix, AZ.
  • Line, W. E., 2014: Results from the GOES-R Proving Ground Portion of the 2014 HWT Spring Experiment. 27th Conference on Severe Local Storms, 3-7 November, Madison, WI.
  • Line, W. E., 2014: Results from the GOES-R Proving Ground Portion of the 2014 HWT Spring Experiment. 39th NWA Annual Meeting, 18-23 October, Salt Lake City, UT.
  • Line, W. E., 2014: Satellite Proving Ground at the Storm Prediction Center and Hazardous Weather Testbed. 1st NOAA Satellite Proving Ground/User Readiness Meeting, 2-6 June, Kansas City, MO.
  • Line, W. E., 2014: GOES-R Proving Ground Activities within the Storm Prediction Center and Hazardous Weather Testbed. GOES-R Science Seminar, 24 January, remote presentation.
  • Line, W. E., 2014: A Retrospective Look at the CIMSS NearCast Model Performance during the May 2013 Tornado Events in Central Oklahoma. AMS Tenth Annual Symposium on New Generation Operational Environmental Satellite Systems, 2-6 February, Atlanta, GA.
  • Terborg, A. M., M. J. Folmer and W. Line, 2014: The GOES-R/JPSS Proving Ground: A National Centers Perspective. AMS Tenth Annual Symposium on New Generation Operational Environmental Satellite Systems, 2-6 February, Atlanta, GA.
  • Weiss, S. J. and W. Line, 2014: On the Role of Next Generation Geostationary Satellite Data in Improving Severe Storm and Tornado Prediction. AMS Tenth Annual Symposium on New Generation Operational Environmental Satellite Systems, 2-6 February, Atlanta, GA.
  • Line, W. E., 2013: GOES-R Proving Ground Activities within the Storm Prediction Center. 38th NWA Annual Meeting, 12-17 October, Charleston, SC.
  • Line, W.E., R.A. Petersen, and R. Aune, 2013: Improving the depiction of moisture transport in short-range forecasts of the pre-convective environment. 2013 EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Conf./19th Conf. on Satellite Meteorology, Oceanography, and Climatology, 16-20 September, Vienna, Austria.
  • Line, W. E., 2013: Using Isentropic Techniques to Improve the Utility of GOES Moisture Observations. M.S. Thesis Oral Defense, AOS Department Seminar, University of Wisconsin – Madison, 28 April, Madison, WI.
  • Line, W. E., R. A. Petersen, R. Aune, and R. Dworak, 2012: Future improvements to very-short-range forecasts of the pre-convective environment using operational geostationary satellite observations. 37th NWA Annual Meeting, 6-11 October, Madison, WI.
  • Line, W. E., R.A. Petersen, and R. Aune, 2012: A Data-Driven Method of Integrating Satellite Moisture Information with NWP Products. 2012 Unidata Users Workshop, 9-13 July, Boulder, CO.